Difference between Synthesis and Biosynthesis is a basic question that arises when you study the chemistry of natural products or Biochemistry. They are the processes of production of macromolecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, plastics, fiber, rubber, etc. from small molecules. Synthesis is an artificial process of the formation of macromolecules by small molecules. On the other hand, biosynthesis is the enzyme-catalyzed multi-step process of the formation of larger organic molecules from small molecules within a living organism.
The word ‘Synthesis’ comes via the Latin synthesis from the Greek ‘Sunthesis’, from ‘Suntithenai’ means ‘Place together, Combine’ . While ‘Biosynthesis’ (Bio + Synthesis) consists of ‘Bio’ means ‘Life’ and ‘Synthesis’ means ‘Place together’ that means ‘synthesis of organic compounds within a living organism’. Let’s know the difference between Synthesis and Biosynthesis.
Table of Contents
Synthesis vs Biosynthesis
Definition of Synthesis and Biosynthesis
Synthesis is the artificial process of the formation of large molecules from simpler molecules. Generally, in a synthesis, two or more elementary substances combine to form a more complex product: A + B → AB. While biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed multi-step process within cells of living organisms by which substrates are modified or converted to more complex products. Biosynthesis also called anabolism . In biosynthesis, small, simple elementary compounds are converted into other compounds, or modified, or combined to form large molecules (macromolecules).
Enzyme role in Synthesis and Biosynthesis
Synthesis is not an enzyme-catalyzed process while biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed process.
Nature of Process
Synthesis is an artificial and chemical process while biosynthesis is a natural / biological/ biochemical process.
Nature of Final products
By synthesis organic or inorganic compounds may produce. While by biosynthesis organic compounds may produce.
Synthesis is either a simple or complex process. While biosynthesis is a multi-step and always a complex process. Substrates, Chemical energy such as ATP, enzymes, and Coenzymes, or Cofactors are required for biosynthesis.
Synthesis occurs outside living organisms. On the other hand, biosynthesis occurs within living organism.
The pathway of synthesis does not indicate seasonal variation. The pathway of biosynthesis does indicate seasonal variation.
Example of Synthesis and Biosynthesis
Examples of Synthesis include Paracetamol from phenol, Ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen and sodium chloride (NaCl) from sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) etc.
On the other hand, examples of biosynthesis include the formation of amino acids, fatty acids, nucleic acid, and alkaloid.
|Definition||Synthesis is the artificial process of the formation of large molecules from simpler molecules.||Biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed multi-step process within cells of living organisms by which substrates are modified or converted to more complex products.|
|Enzyme role||Not an enzyme-catalyzed process||An enzyme-catalyzed process|
|Nature of Process||Artificial and chemical process||Natural / biological/ biochemical process|
|Nature of Final products||Organic or inorganic compounds yield from synthesis||Mainly organic compounds yield from biosynthesis|
|Complexity||Either simple or complex process||Multi-step and always complex process|
|Location||Occurs outside living organisms.||Occurs within living organism|
|Seasonal variation||This pathway does not indicate seasonal variation.||This pathway does indicate seasonal variation.|
|Example||Synthesis of Paracetamol from phenol, Ammonia from Nitrogen and Hydrogen and sodium chloride (NaCl) from sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) etc.||Formation of amino acids, fatty acids, Amino Acids, Nucleic acid, and Alkaloid.|
The main difference between synthesis and biosynthesis is Synthesis is the artificial process of formation of large molecules from simpler molecules occurs outside the living organisms while Biosynthesis is an enzyme-catalyzed multi-step process within cells of living organisms by which substrates are modified or converted to more complex products.
- Synthesis, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2019. https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=synthesis
- Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M., & Lehninger, A. L. (2017). Lehninger principles of biochemistry. Seventh edition, New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.
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