Saturday , October 24 2020

Difference between Signs and Symptoms

Difference between Signs and Symptoms is a common question in medical science study. But non-medical people use these two word “Sign” and “Symptom” interchangeably. We are using many words interchangeably such as Drug and Medicine, Hospital and Clinic, Packing and Packaging, Sterile and Pyrogen-free and so on. “Sign” and “Symptom” are interrelated and have some differences between Signs and Symptoms. Signs or medical signs and symptoms are very important to understand a disease. Generally, the sign means mark but in medical science, signs are the physical manifestation of a disease that may observe by any observer. Symptoms are the abnormalities that perceive by the patient only. However, let’s see the difference between signs and symptoms.

Signs vs Symptoms

Table of contents

  • Definition
  • Types
  • Nature
  • Measurability
  • Visibility
  • Verification
  • Detectability
  • Examples
  • Summary of the difference between Signs and Symptoms in a table.

1. Definition of Signs and Symptoms

Signs are the physical manifestation of disease or injury, an illness that are measurable and reproducible [1] and that can be recognised by any observer such as patients, doctors, other health care professionals, and other people. While symptoms are clinical manifestations of a disorder of organs or systems that can be recognised or perceived by only patients.

2.Types of Signs and Symptoms

Based on the type of inference that may be made from their presence, clinical sign or medical signs are four types.

A. Prognostic signs: They indicate the future outcome of the present bodily state of the patient, rather than specifying the disease name [2].

B. Anamnestic signs: Always they point to the past. They indicate the past existence of a certain disease or condition [2].

C. Diagnostic signs: they indicate the disease name means lead to the recognition and identification of disease [2].

D. Pathognomonic signs: They indicate with certainty a particular disease is present [2].

Symptoms are generally fit into three main types:

A. Remitting symptoms: Those symptoms improve or resolve completely.

B. Relapsing symptoms: They have occurred in the past, resolved, and then returned.

C. Chronic symptoms: They are long-lasting or recurrent symptoms.

3. Nature of Signs and Symptoms

Signs are objective evidence or indication of disease because they can be seen or touch or heard or felt by patients and another person. Whereas Symptoms are subjective evidence or indication of disease because symptoms are perceivable only by patients.

4. Measurability of Signs and Symptoms

Signs can be measured by clinical settings such as Stethoscope, Spirometer, Ophthalmoscope X-ray imaging, Sphygmomanometer, and thermometer. On the other hand, generally, symptoms cannot measure or very difficult to measure by clinical setting.

5. Visibility of Signs and Symptoms

Signs are visible outwards. While symptoms are not visible outwards. Only the patient can perceive.

6. Verification of Signs and Symptoms

Signs can be verified whereas Symptoms cannot be verified but reported to the physicians, Pharmacists, Nurses, and other people.

7. Detectability of Signs and Symptoms

Signs are detectable by any person such as patient, physician, pharmacist, nurse and lay observer [3]. Whereas Symptoms are detected or experienced or felt by the patient only.

8. Examples of Signs and Symptoms

Examples of signs are skin rash or lump, Palmar erythema, sweating wound, Ascites, Bleeding, bruising, swelling, oily skin, Gynecomastia, temperature, blood pressure [4], Cough, excessive Saliva, and Clubbing, etc.

Sign and symptom

Figure: skin rash (Sign)

On the other hand, examples of symptoms are anxiety, pain, fatigue, Hallucinations, nausea, headache, blur vision and photophobia etc.

Summary of the difference between Signs and Symptoms

Features Signs Symptoms
Definition Signs are the physical manifestation of disease or injury, an illness that are measurable and reproducible and that can be recognised by any observer such as patients, doctors, other health care professionals, and other people. Symptoms are clinical manifestations of a disorder of organs or systems that can be recognised or perceived by the patients only.
Types Based on the type of inference that may be made from their presence, signs are 4 types.

A.    Prognostic signs

B.     Anamnestic signs

C.     Diagnostic signs

D.    D.  Pathognomonic signs

Generally 3 types:

A.    Remitting symptoms

B.     Relapsing symptoms

C.     Chronic symptoms

Nature Objective evidence or indication of disease. Subjective evidence or indication of disease.
Measurability Measured by clinical settings such as Stethoscope, Spirometer, Ophthalmoscope X-ray imaging, Sphygmomanometer, and thermometer. Cannot measure or very difficult to measure by clinical settings.
Visibility Visible outwards. Vague and invisible.
Verification Can be verified. Cannot be verified but reported to others.
Detectability Detectable by the patient and any person. Detected or experienced or felt by the patient or sufferer only.
Examples Examples of signs are skin rash or lump, Palmar erythema, sweating wound, Ascites, Bleeding, bruising, swelling, oily skin, Gynecomastia, temperature, blood pressure, cough, excessive Saliva, and Clubbing, etc. Examples of symptoms are anxiety, pain, fatigue, Hallucinations, nausea, headache, blur vision, and photophobia etc.

Now, I think there is no confusion about signs and symptoms after reading this article of the difference between Signs and Symptoms. If you have any further confusion please feel free and comments below. You may also read the Difference between Drug and Medicine.

References

  1. A. H. Samiy, R. G. Douglas, and J. A. Barondess, Textbook of diagnostic medicine. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1987.
  2. King, Lester S. Medical Thinking: A Historical Preface. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-691-08297-9.
  3. C. M. MacBryde, R. S. Blacklow, and R. D. Aach, Signs and symptoms: applied pathologic physiology and clinical interpretation. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970.
  4. R. F. LeBlond, R. L. DeGowin, and D. D. Brown, DeGowin’s diagnostic examination. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2009.

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