Tuesday , October 27 2020
compressibility-vs-Compactibility

Difference between compression and compaction of tablets

Compression and Compaction are related to tablets manufacturing. The most widely used dosage form is Tablets and two-thirds of all used pharmaceutical dosage forms consist of tablets [1].

The literal meaning of compression and compaction

Compression is a process of compressing, or increase in density or lessening in the bulk volume of granules or powder. While Compaction is the process of alteration of powders into a coherent specimen or compacting powder or granules.

Definition of compression and compaction

Compression is the lessening in the bulk volume of powder by means of displacement of the gaseous phase under compressional force.  According to USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) Compression is the reduction in the volume of a powder bed due to the application of stress, e.g., loading [2]. Also, USP defines compressibility as the ability of a powder to be compressed (reduced in volume) by the application of stress.

On the other hand, Compaction is the compression & consolidation of two phases (solid and gas) system due to applied force [3]. According to USP (United States Pharmacopoeia) Compaction is the transformation of powder into an intact compact with measurable strength and defined shape by the application of compression pressure[2]. Compaction of powders is a general term used to describe a situation in which powdered material is subjected to some level of mechanical force [3]. Also, USP defines Compactibility as the ability of a powder to form an intact compact with measurable strength.Compression-and-compaction-processes

Occurrence

The reduction of the bulk volume of powder or granules occurs in compression. While in compaction, an increase in mechanical strength occurs.

Basic mechanism

Compression is the process of the gaseous phase displacement from granules or powders. Whereas, compaction is the process of consolidation of particles.

Do you know the relation between compression and compaction?

Compression of granules is a part of the compaction process. While compaction has two phases are compression and consolidation. Hence, Compaction = compression + consolidation.

Association

The term compression is associated with the compression force – porosity profile. While Compaction is associated with the tensile strength of the tablet and its porosity.

Machine for tablet compression and compaction

Simply, Compression is done by tablet compression machine such as

  • Single punch machine
  • Multi punch machine
  • Rotary tablet compression machine
  • High-speed Rotary tablet compression machine
  • Multi-layer Rotary tablet compression machine

On the other hand, Compaction is done by compactor machine such as

  • Roller Compactor
  • Hydraulic Compactor

Summary of the difference between compression and compaction of tablets

Compression Compaction
Compression is a process of compressing, or increase in density or lessening in the bulk volume of granules or powder. Compaction is the process of alteration of powders into a coherent specimen or compacting powder or granules.
Compression is the lessening in the bulk volume of powder by means of displacement of the gaseous phase under compressional force. Compaction is the transformation of powder into an intact compact with measurable strength and defined shape by the application of compression pressure.
The reduction of the bulk volume of powder or granules occurs. An increase in mechanical strength occurs.
Consolidation not necessary for compression. Consolidation must require for compaction.
Compression is the process of the gaseous phase displacement from granules or powders. It is the process of consolidation of particles.
Compression is a part of the compaction process. It has two phases are compression and consolidation.
Tablet compression machine required such as

  • Single punch machine
  • Multi punch machine
  • Rotary tablet compression machine
  • High-speed Rotary tablet compression machine
  • Multi-layer Rotary tablet compression machine

It is done by compactor machine such as

  • Roller Compactor
  • Hydraulic Compactor

Also, you may read:

References       

  1. Wu, C. and Seville, J.P.K. (2009) ‘A comparative study of compaction properties of binary and bilayer tablets’, Powder Technology, 189(2), pp. 285-294.
  2. (2020). The United States pharmacopeia. The National formulary. Rockville, Md. : United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc.,
  3. Lachman, L., & Liebermann, H. A. (2013). The Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. Washington Square, Philadelphia USA: Lea & Febiger

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